Agent Orange/Vietnam Ribbon

AGENT ORANGE
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Agent Orange is the name to which all herbicides are referred (technically) in error during the Vietnam War. The name, Agent Orange, has become synonymous for, and collective of, all herbicides used during the Vietnam War. Agent Orange, is also the identification of the harmful effects from herbicides (again, in error). The reality is that people don't have Agent Orange disease, rather, a disease, or cancer caused directly or indirectly from exposure to a herbicide containing dioxin. The name, Agent Orange, was derived from the orange stripe on drums in which the herbicide was stored.

Agent Orange (Scientifically)

Agent Orange was one of several defoliants (herbicides) containing trace amounts of a toxic contaminant, TCDD (dioxin). Defoliants were used during the Vietnam War to kill vast areas of jungle growth. The real, Agent Orange, was a 1:1 mixture of the n-butyl esters of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T). A byproduct contaminant of the manufacturing process for 2,4,5-T (used in all the agents during the Vietnam War) is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin (TCDD). TCDD is commonly referred to as dioxin.

This chart contains a list of the herbicides (agents) used during the Vietnam War, and the amount of TCDD (dioxin) contamination present in the agents (per the USAF Herb Tapes):

Brief History of Agent Orange

Grand Total: 8,165,491 gallons

South Vietnam Quadrants: I Corp II Corp III Corp IV Corp

I Corps - 2,355,322

Location Orange White Blue Total Gallons
A Shau 53,550 2,550 6,128 62,228
An Hoa 6,500 1,800 11,250 19,550
Binh Hoa 8,220 0 1,600 9,820
Cam Lo 80,375 8,660 12,785 101,820
Camp Carrol 78,200 5,400 5,050 88,650
Camp Eagle 14,250 0 0 14,250
Camp Esso 53,410 5,600 0 64,510
Camp Evans 18,690 0 880 19,570
Camp Henderson 68,155 7,040 4,800 79,995
Chu Lai 12,170 4,150 1,598 17,918
Con Thien 84,700 12,460 10,925 108,085
Da Nang, China Beach 13,800 0 2,000 15,800
Dong Ha 54,385 5,060 9,935 69,380
Duc Pho, LZ Bronco 46,225 14,400 1,175 61,800
Firebase Jack 140,875 11,900 3,280 156,055
Firebase Rakkassan 150,145 23,900 2,510 176,555
Firebase West 15,405 3,690 18,480 37,575
Hill 63 20,500 3,200 0 23,700
Hill 69 11,620 4,150 1,598 17,368
Hoi An 17,520 3,000 13,950 34,470
Hue 41,395 0 5,070 46,465
Khe Sanh, Firebase Smith 43,705 3,040 4,300 51,045
LangCo Bridge 50,610 5,600 3,500 59,710
LZ Baldy 15,430 3,000 13,950 32,380
LZ Dogpatch, Hill 327 4,490 0 8,250 12,740
LZ Geronimo 22,535 14,000 468 37,003
LZ Jane, Firebase Barbara 91,150 6,750 3,700 101,600
LZ Langley, Firebase Shepard 72,105 7,040 4,800 83,945
LZ Profess, Hill 55 39,300 13,000 17,209 69,509
LZ Rockcrusher, Hill 85 47,800 0 0 47,800
LZ Rockpile 110,050 15,440 7,650 133,140
LZ Ross 15,405 6,720 18,508 40,633
LZ Sandra 118,780 20,210 24,755 163,745
LZ Snapper, Firebase Leather 11,350 0 3,000 14,350
Marble, Hill 59 15,405 6,720 18,508 40,633
Phu Bai 54,300 3,000 120 57,420
Phu Luc, LZ Tommahawk 78,250 4,000 0 82,250
Quang Nai 25,605 0 1,800 27,405
Quang Tri, LZ Nancy 68,000 2,750 3,700 74,450
2,355,322
Top

II Corps - 1,054,406

Location Orange White Blue Total Gallons
An Khe, Camp Radcliff 37,810 6,400 5,610 49,820
An Lao, LZ Laramie 68,970 490 10,570 80,030
Ban Me Thuot 16,000 9,250 0 25,250
Ben Het 80,495 7,230 3,000 90,725
Bon Song, LZ Two Bits 80,643 630 6,000 87,273
Bre Nhi 6,600 0 0 6,600
Cam Ranh Bay 21,227 1,373 0 22,600
Camp Granite 59,310 2,075 5,390 66,775
Che Oreo 0 1,800 0 1,800
Da Lat 575 0 0 575
Dak To 49,460 600 34,800 84,860
Firebase Pony 43,490 0 3,800 47,290
Kontum 0 415 0 415
LZ Dog, LZ English 63,073 630 6,000 69,703
LZ Oasis No Data
LZ Putter, Firebase Bird 50,095 0 7,200 57,295
LZ Uplift 43,455 3,220 275 46,950
Nha Trang 6,950 325 0 7,275
Phan Rang 110 2,075 0 2,185
Phan Thiet 5,000 330 220 5,550
Plei Ho, SF Camp 15,300 1,260 110 16,670
Plei Jerang 98,220 51,235 1,800 151,255
Pleiku 1,210 11,640 1,950 14,800
Puh Cat, LZ Hammond 29,700 7,210 0 36,910
Qui Nhon 53,215 1,800 4,125 59,140
Song Cau 5,650 55 0 5,705
Tuy An 13,215 3,740 0 16,955
Tuy Hoa 29,565 4,485 0 34,050
1,054,406
Top

III Corps - 4,086,229

Location Orange White Blue Total Gallons
An Loc 77,000 79,830 0 156,830
Ben Cat 87,250 83,640 20,105 190,995
Ben Hoa 35,045 124,525 3,950 163,520
Cholon 320 0 0 320
Cu Chi 59,150 67,540 14,105 140,795
Dau Tieng (Michelin) 32,370 45,800 3,800 81,770
Dien Duc, Firebase Elaine 66,850 25,800 0 92,350
Duc Hoa 750 0 0 750
Firebase Di An 6,000 0 1,595 7,595
Firebase Frenzel 13,445 57,560 900 71,905
Firebase Jewel, LZ Snuffy 219,550 146,010 7,300 372,860
Firebase Mace 34,280 23,350 730 58,360
Katum 299,420 239,395 20,000 558,815
Lai Khe 57,120 22,300 1,800 81,220
Loc Ninh 46,660 103,710 1,800 152,170
Long Binh, Firebase Concord 13,445 57,560 0 71,005
LZ Bearcat 17,840 75,470 0 93,310
LZ Fish Nook 44,000 23,800 0 67,800
LZ Schofield 38,640 17,210 7,800 63,650
Nha Be (Navy Base) 119,725 121,925 6,000 247,650
Nui Ba Den, Firebase Carolin 50,020 66,500 2,100 118,620
Phouc Vinh 484,383 146,576 12,810 643,769
Phu Chong 39,848 62,230 12,055 114,130
Phu Loi 79,000 83,430 0 162,430
Qua Viet 50,610 5,600 3,500 59,710
Quan Loi 44,190 34,300 0 78,490
Saigon No Data
Song Be 1,900 9,220 0 11,120
Tan Son Nhut 6,320 0 1,595 7,915
Tay Ninh 720 3,225 600 4,545
Trang Bang 32,365 39,560 6,000 77,925
Vo Dat, Firebase Nancy 14,180 29,100 0 43,280
Vung Tau 7,350 0 0 7,350
Xuan Loc 23,865 58,750 660 83,275
4,086,229
Top

IV Corps - 669,534

Location Orange White Blue Total Gallons
Ben Luc 45,900 14,838 0 60,738
Ben Tre 24,800 24,750 0 49,550
Can Tho 15,160 13,915 11,685 40,760
Cao Lanh 1,875 2,935 830 5,640
Dong Tam 5,870 605 165 6,640
Firebase Grand Can(yon?) 0 1,540 0 1,540
Firebase Moore 9,820 0 0 9,820
Ham Long 3,275 1,620 0 4,895
Moc Hoa 12,400 6,590 0 18,990
My Tho 13,320 7,316 965 21,601
Nam Can 150,345 64,295 0 214,640
Phnom 0 184 0 184
Phu Quoc 19,000 0 0 19,000
Rach Gia 0 2,155 0 2,155
Seafloat 4,700 0 0 4,700
Soc Trang 3,410 2,391 1,280 7,081
Tan An 89,550 36,450 0 126,000
Tieu Con 8,700 0 0 8,700
Tra Vinh 9,885 8,000 0 17,885
Vinh Loi 30,010 0 0 30,010
Vinh Long 8,360 9,755 890 19,005
669,534
Top

Note: This does NOT include US Army helicopter or ground applications, or any form of the insecticide programs by GVN, or the US military. The amount represents gallons within eight (8) kilometers of the area. Thus, each area is 9.6 miles in diameter.

Description TCDD (Dioxin) Amounts
Agent Orange 1.77 to 40 ppm
Agent Blue (Purple) 32.8 to 45 ppm
Agent Red (Pink) 65.6 ppm
Agent White (Green) 65.6 ppm
Silvex 1 to 70 ppm
2,4,5-T (Current) 0.1 ppm or less

 

Vietnam and Agent Orange Facts Brief History of Agent Orange Terms

Half Life. The length of time required for half a quantity of drug, or other substance residing in a living organism to be metabolized, or eliminated by normal biological processes. It is also called biological half-life. The half-life of dioxin is 8.7 years in humans (as determined in the Ranch Hand (follow-up) studies).

PTSD, or Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (Dysfunction). A psychological condition that occurs after a trauma (stressful trauma situation, e.g., war, accident, rape, robbery, etc.). PTSD is characterized by anxiety, depression, guilt, sorrow (or grief), a sense of shame, death anxiety, panic, low self-esteem, rage, and/or any combination of these. Treatment varies with the severity, and willingness of the person to seek help.

Sarcoma. A malignant tumor arising from connective tissues. Soft Tissue Sarcomas are tumors in muscles, fat, fibrous tissue, and vessels serving these tissues as well as the peripheral nervous system.

TCDD Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (also 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin), commonly known as dioxin. TCDD is in reality a family of dioxins that contain four (4) chlorine atoms each. Therefore, TCDD is classified as a chlorinated organic chemical. TCDD (dioxin) is, perhaps, the most detrimental and damaging chemical ever produced. It's effects will be with us for generations.

credit for above information to: Gary D. Moore, (The Last) Chairman, Michigan Agent Orange Commission, 5161 Howard Road,  Smiths Creek, Michigan 48074-2023 USA, Updated: October 1, 2000   http://dns.advnet.net/gdmoore/index.html

 

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